Parang ganito ang mga utak ng pagpatay sa Maguindanao. Walang damdamin sa pagpaplano pero parang makina sa pagiging sistematiko. Pero tao rin sila, dahil partikular ang brutalidad nila sa kababaihan – na nakasalalay rin sa pinagsasaluhang mga pagtingin sa kababaihan ng lipunan. (Galing ang mga larawan sa ibaba ni Rolfe Horn sa Scott Nichols Gallery. Salamat!)

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Comments

  • neil dalanon  On December 2, 2009 at 9:15 am

    tama ka. nakagugulantang ‘yong pagbaril sa mismong mga ari ng mga babaeng biktima. Ano ang gusto nilang palabasin? sana’y putul-putulin din ang mga titi ng lahat ng kumalabit ng gatilyo noong araw na iyon.

    napadaan lang..

  • kapirasongkritika  On December 3, 2009 at 2:40 am

    Salamat sa pagdaan! Palabasin na wala silang takot at marami pa ang susunod kung hindi masusunod ang gusto nila.

    Nakakagigil talaga. Pero para sa makataong pagpaparusa pa rin ako, kahit parusang kamatayan.

  • tanglad  On December 5, 2009 at 5:24 pm

    Mahaba ang historya ng karahasan, pag-gahasa, at pagpaslang sa kababaihan sa digma at sa iba’t ibang forms ng conflict. Understandable sa akin on one level ang reaksyong dapat putulin ang titi ng mga pumaslang, but this would only paint the sexualized violence in Maguindanao as perpetuated by individual men. It doesn’t address how women are treated as property (including sexual property) or get romanticized as embodiments of their group’s culture/values, part of the reasons why rape and other forms of sexualized violence against women are potent tools of war and terror.

  • missphilippines  On December 6, 2009 at 4:30 am

    Rape is one of the theoretical preoccupations of various feminists all over the world and this sexual assault seems to be posed as a signifier that in its accord, elusive and slippery. Witnessing the barbaric offense of the Ampatuans against women precisely identify how social relations are congealed within the feudal production that Mindanao has. If we are going to review Foucault’s Discipline and Punish, forms of punishment against the corporeality of body are presented in the public, in grand and theatrical manner, which are all working behind the shadows of feudalism. Under the rise of global capitalism, punishments against the body are hidden, individualized, secluded from the public. The same manner of “egotistic” sense of consumption. I would like to consider some points by Tanglad but perhaps to nail down the argument, sexualized violence and other barbarism against women are forms of biological atrocities that are merely coinciding within the desire for an object, a fetish for a commodity, which is the very politics of global capitalism. This then leads me to remember Joan Copjec’s Imagine There’s No Woman that women are not the one, or “there is no whole, no “all” of woman, or that she is no One… It is not only feminine being, but being in general that resists being assembled into a whole” (6). I would like to depart from the aggregative approach to these forms of violence and push further that these assaults are processes of governance and the modes of life under the historical stage of the current production. This event is normal under the pretext of monetary system and cultural wars wage by the ruling classes. There is no way out but to hammer down the enemies.

  • kapirasongkritika  On December 6, 2009 at 11:53 pm

    @ tanglad: Hoooy! Nabuhay ka! Hehe. Actually, noong isinusulat ko ito, naisip talaga kita. Mabuti naman at nakapagkomento ka.

    Totoo! Mahaba na nga ang kasaysayang iyan — partikular na pagdahas sa kanila bilang mga babae, pero hindi nga lang bilang babae. Katulad ng hindi lang din bilang lalake nagawa ng mga pumaslang ang krimen.

    Dahil idinadambana sila, nagiging target sila ng dahas sa mga panahon ng digma at labanan. Maligayang pagbabalik!

    @ missphilippines: Matapos ang teoretikal na paglalahad ng suri mo, ang dulo mo ay martilyuhin natin ang mga kaaway! Hehe.

    Baka pwede ring i-paraphrase si Copjec: “It is not only feminine being, but being in general that resists being assembled into a HOLE.” Ibig sabihin, ang reduksyon sa kababaihan at mga tao sa pangkalahatan sa kagamitang sekswal.

    Pero ano ang implikasyon nito sa pulitika? Sa isang banda, nariyan ang sekswalisadong pagdahas sa kababaihan. Sa kabilang banda, nariyan ang paghulagpos sa pagiging “babae” at “lalake” — kahit pa kina Julia Kristeva noon. Paano tutugunan ng lapit na ito ang nangyari sa Maguindanao?

  • tanglad  On December 12, 2009 at 10:09 pm

    Salamat so pag-welcome back. Nagbabasa pa rin ako regularly, na-busy lang.

    Iniisip ko ang mga punto na na-raise niyo ni missphilippines, especially since I’m struggling through Jasbir Puar’s “Terrorist Assemblage.” Particularly sa chapter 2, yung discussion niya about how responses to the Abu Ghraib pics as sexual violence downplays the racial and gendered dynamics of torture. Tapos yung diskusyon niya sa chap 4, tungkol sa turban biling isang assemblage ng impormasyon at affective intimacies para sa mga Sikh na pinagbintangang terrorist pagkatapos ng 9/11. Worse, walang distinksyon between the turban at the body, the turban and its contested meanings are part of the assemblage of being Sikh (at least right after 9/11).

    So I’m thinking about this in light of your question on implications for politics, at sa kaso ng dahas na ginamit sa mga kababaihan sa Maguindanao and war/terror in general. As someone very invested in Kim Crenshaw’s intersectionality, I’m still resistant to Puar’s assemblage. Pero your question makes me wonder if assemblage works in terms of how those in power try to “other” or marginalized vulnerable populations (in Puar’s terms, to “queer” others).

    My tendency is to focus on the sexualized nature of this violence, but I’m now wondering how useful this concept of assemblage is in violence and politics. The powers that be can exclude people based on some aspect of the assemblage. Halimbawa, yung mga babae na pinatay sa Maguindanao, clearly yung pagiging babae nila ay isang aspect ng assemblage na binigyang emphasis. Or yng Sikhs who used to be marginalized by their race/skin color were now being othered by the supposed “Muslim” part of their assemblage. Or combinations thereof.

    Tapos base sa mga reaksyong naririnig ko sa pagdeklara ng Martial Law at sa mga atitud na marami (both sa Pinas at sa US) na okay lang ang paggamit ng dahas (Abu Ghraib, Martial Law sa Maguindanao) laban sa “the Muslims,” maybe useful din ang concept na ito in terms of understanding the workings of marginalization, terrorism, and violence.

    [Naku, ang haba nito and probably didn’t make much sense. Just thinking aloud, sori]

  • kapirasongkritika  On December 13, 2009 at 4:19 pm

    Tanglad: You can think aloud here anytime. Hehe.

    Hindi ko pa alam ang konsepto ng assemblage. Inaaral ko pa nga lang ang intersectionality — na sa iyo ko rin napulot.

    Pero parang sure na tayo na mahalaga ang “pagkababae” ng mga pinatay na babae sa kung paano sila pinatay. Pero syempre, naganap din iyun sa konteksto ng iba’t ibang matrix ng oppressions.

    Totoo rin na ang ibang tao talaga, kontra-Muslim agad ang naramdaman sa balitang ito. Syempre, sari-saring permutations na rin ito: Na dahil Muslim ay wala talagang respeto sa kababaihan, o dahil masyadong may respeto, grabe rin ang pagdahas sa kanila.

    Mas wala yatang point ang sinabi ko. Hehe.

    Pero I’m glad na nagkakaisa tayong sa reyalidad hinahanap ang katotohanan ng mga teorya at lapit na inaaral natin. Sabi nga ni Delia Aguilar, kapag feminism, dapat kongkreto.

    Sulat ka pa!

  • missphilippines  On December 14, 2009 at 3:35 pm

    Dahil miss ko na ang talakayan, pasensya na nasira ang charger ng laptop ko kaya namiss ko chumika with you.

    Maguindanao massacre simply assures us the conditions of possibility of having a neocolonial Philippines, which simply endorses the argument that we are simply smashed by the real of the current system. Women do not essentially exist and they are simply signified within the chain of signs by simply casting barbaric offense against the bodies as the corporeality of the social order, which squarely assumes the concrete universality of the same system that we are revolting against. What does it imply in our daily political adventure is that we presume to be amused of such condition when in fact we know that this is how the state governs life, and we refuse the real from pushing aggregative approach such as gender struggle, violence against women or liberal notions of emancipation. It is important to see how this situation sometimes tries to be the same mechanism to erase the very violence it had assumed in the act itself, which made me certainly call to hammer down the enemy. We need to simply response on this situation not by emphatic take on how grave the massacre was but how this system is governed through this and even gender are structured on the account that women are raped, ruined or oppressed because these are the key actions that define them.

  • tanglad  On December 18, 2009 at 2:59 am

    “Pero parang sure na tayo na mahalaga ang “pagkababae” ng mga pinatay na babae sa kung paano sila pinatay.”

    Fair question. Napag-isipan ko tuloy na ang affiliation nila with certain factions, who they represented, plus ang pagiging babae nila, ang emphasized parts ng assemblage nila na naging predominant.

    I totally agree with you tungkol sa matrix of oppressions na pag-intindi ng intersectionality. Nag-click sa isipan ko ang assemblage sa diskusyon niyo ni missphilippines about how beings resist being assembled into a (w)hole. Kasi nga naman, kung intersectional ang analysis mo, naiintindihan mo na walang dividing point between pagiging Muslim, pagiging babae, pagiging Muslim na babae na affiliated with this clan na may class privileges etc, that all these identities/privileges/oppressions intersect.

    But as missphilippines states, even as we resist this assemblage by emphasizing these fluid intersections of gender/class/etc, the state has systematic mechanisms to tease out and violate the parts of our assemblage that will “other” us and who our bodies/selves signify. So sa kababaihan, rape and sexualized violence. Hindi lang sa extreme example ng Maguindanao, pero sa pag-expose ng mga Pinay sa sexual violence at harassment bunga ng militarisasyon or ng neoliberal policies that commodify women’s lives and bodies through the economic development policies that thrive on the export of Pinay labor.

  • kapirasongkritika  On December 18, 2009 at 4:37 am

    @ missphilippines: Amen! Hindi nga sapat ang pagbuhos ng mga salita at hakbangin para ikondena kung gaano kasahol ang nangyari. Kailangan ngang tuligsain ang mismong sistemang responsable sa nangyari. Oo, ang gender divisions din na ipinapataw ng sistemang ito ang ugat ng karahasang nangyari sa kababaihan sa masaker.

    @ tanglad: True. Makabuluhan sigurong sabihin na maraming taktika ang sistema sa pagsasamantala at pang-aapi. May panahong hindi gaanong mahalaga ang uri, kasarian, relihiyon sa pagsasamantala at pang-aapi, pero may panahon ding mahalaga. Siguro kailangan nating tanganan ang parehong lapit nang hindi isinasakripisyo ang isa para sa isa. Sa tingin ko lang din, sa kongkretong mga pagkakataon natin maililinaw ang halaga ng mga kategoryang ito, kung paano nila hinuhubog ang mga buhay natin. Pero syempre, mahalagang makapag-establish ng general rules — at ang general rules ay contradictory rin.

    Totoo: hindi lang sa extreme form na ipinakita ng Maguindanao. Nabubuhay halimbawa ang ekonomiya ng Pilipinas dahil sa suporta ng mga OFWs. Sabi ng kaibigan sa Migrante, magkasing-dami ang mga babae at lalakeng migrante na Pinoy. Pero talaga namang racialized and sexualized ang kanilang characteristics kaya sila mabenta sa ibang bansa sa ilalim ng sistemang ito.

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